Hormone Replacement Therapy Many men could benefit from testosterone replacement therapy to combat common health issues men experience every day. However, there are many men that dismiss these issues as inevitable signs of aging. There is a common misconception many men may have about hormone replacement therapy: that it is strictly for women. The truth is […]

An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) in a blood or urine sample. Estradiol is the most commonly measured type of estrogen for nonpregnant women. The amount of estradiol in a woman’s blood varies throughout her menstrual cycle. After menopause, estradiol production drops to a very […]

The liver produces and stores glycogen from excess carbohydrates, and later releases it when blood sugar levels fall too low. The liver synthesizes plasma proteins that carry oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and plasma proteins that carry waste products back to the liver for detoxification. The liver also produces bile, a compound that emulsifies fat so that it can be broken down by digestive enzymes. A lipotropic nutrient is one that promotes or encourages the export of fat from the liver. Lipotropics are necessary for the maintenance of a healthy liver as well as burning the exported fat for additional energy. Without lipotropics such as choline and inositol, fats and bile can become trapped in the liver, causing severe problems such as cirrhosis and blocking fat metabolism. Choline is essential for fat metabolism. Choline functions as a methyl donor and it is required for proper liver function. Like inositol, choline is a lipotropic. Inositol exerts lipotropic effects as well. An “unofficial” member of the B vitamins, inositol has even been shown to relieve depression and panic attacks. Methionine, an essential amino acid, is the major lipotropic compound in humans. When estrogen levels are high, the body requires more methionine. Estrogens reduce bile flow through the liver and increase bile cholesterol levels. Methionine helps deactivate estrogens.

Vitamin B12

This vitamin is important to keep the brain and nervous system functioning normally and for the formation of red blood cells. By synthesizing and regulating DNA, B12 is involved in cellular metabolism. It also plays a vital role in fatty acid synthesis and energy production. Many medications, certain medical conditions, and the normal aging process can lead to a B12 deficiency.

(1). HRT will stop your hot flushes and sweats Troublesome hot flushes, severe night sweats and headaches causing chronic insomnia are characteristic symptoms of the menopause. These symptoms may last for many years. Apart from being socially embarrassing they result in tiredness and depression because of lack of sleep. These symptoms can almost invariably be […]

Red yeast rice (RYR), a product made from cultivating rice with the mold Monascus purpureus, has been used in China for centuries to treat circulatory and digestive disorders – and apparently without a bit of controversy. RYR has been in use in the U.S. for a much shorter period of time (as a non-prescription cholesterol-lowering […]

Pantothenic acid has a long list of uses, although there isn’t enough scientific evidence to determine whether it is effective for most of these uses. People take pantothenic acid for treating dietary deficiencies, acne, alcoholism, allergies, baldness, asthma, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, burning feet syndrome, yeast infections, heart failure, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory disorders, celiac disease, colitis, conjunctivitis, convulsions, and cystitis. It is also taken by mouth for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, hyperactivity, low blood sugar, trouble sleeping (insomnia), irritability, low blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, muscular cramps in the legs associated with pregnancy or alcoholism, neuralgia, and obesity.

What causes testosterone deficiency? Testosterone is a hormone produced by the testicles and is responsible for the proper development of male sexual characteristics, and is important for maintaining muscle bulk, adequate levels of red blood cells, bone density, sense of well-being, and sexual and reproductive function. Inadequate testosterone production is not a common cause of […]

Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus

The first intimation of vitamin D’s vital role was in 1782, when it was discovered that cod liver oil cures rickets (a disease of growing children whose bones bend due to lack of strength). Of course, they didn’t know then that it was vitamin D in the oil that did the job.

Vitamin D itself was isolated in the 1920’s, but for several decades, all that was known about its usefulness was that it prevented rickets.

In fact, vitamin D plays a major role in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in their proper utilization. This helps keep our bones and teeth strong, and stops calcium depositing where it shouldn’t (for example in our blood vessels, heart and kidneys).

PHARMACOKINETICS
Testosterone esters are less polar than free testosterone. Testosterone esters in oil Injected intramuscularly are absorbed slowly from the lipid phase; thus, testosterone cypionate can be given at intervals of two to four weeks.

Testosterone in plasma is 98 percent bound to a specific testosterone-estradiol binding globulin, and about 2 percent is free. Generally, the amount of this sex-hormone binding globulin in the plasma will determine the distribution of testosterone between free and bound forms, and the free testosterone concentration will determine its half-life.

About 90 of a dose of testosterone is excreted in the urine as glucuronic and sulfuric acid conjugates of tesrtosterone and its metabolites; about 6 percent of a dose is excreted in the feces, mostly in the unconjugated form. Inactivation of testosterone occurs primarily in the liver. Testosterone is metabolized to various 17-keto steroids through two different pathways.

The half-life of testosterone cypionate when Injected intramuscularly is approximately eight days.

In many tissues the activity of testosterone appears to depend on reduction to dihydrotestost-
erone, which binds to cytosol receptor proteins. The steroid-receptor complex is transported to the nucleus where it initiates transcription events and cellular changes related to androgen action.

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